What would make a better campaign logo for Hillary Clinton?

Answer by Tomiwa Ogunmodede:

I think it's just a little bit flat. Just a tad bit ordinary. But then, I'm not American, so what could I possibly know?!
Here's my take on the logo:

God bless Quora!


Guys! Thanks for the comments and suggestions.

I am taking them into consideration and thus christening the second iteration of my take on the #hillary2016 logo.

The stars and stripes are in full view here.

Criticism, suggestions and comments are appreciated.

What would make a better campaign logo for Hillary Clinton?


What are the best ways to learn logo design in Photoshop?

Answer by Greg Davis:

Costas Papaconstantinou already pointed this out, but I highly recommend that you create your logo in Illustrator, not Photoshop. Unless you are 110% sure that your design will never need to be scaled up (which is highly unlikely), Illustrator is the way to go. That said, if you do decide to create your logo in Photoshop here are the tools I recommend you focus on becoming comfortable with.


I suggest working in Shape mode (A) when using your pen tool. Unless you're comfortable visualizing the positive and negative space within your paths and their color, it's far easier to work in Shape mode. Your paths remain editable and you can work with fills and strokes in a similar manner as Illustrator. But perhaps the single most important tool you'll need to get comfortable with is the Pen tool itself (B). The best way to learn this tool is practice, practice, practice. You should also get used to using the keyboard shortcuts associated with the different tools in the Pen Tool palette and all the other shortcuts that will make editing and manipulating your paths quicker.

While using the Pen Tool (P):

OPTION/ALT – Convert Point Tool: This allows you to make a point into a corner, break your handles so that they affect your path independently of one another, and turn corners and/or independent handles back into smooth handles locked to the same length and direction.

COMMAND(Apple)/CONTROL(Windows) – This will enable you to change your Pen Tool into the Direct Selection Tool (white arrow) without having to switch back and forth between tools. Moving points, changing handles, and changing curves while still remaining in the Pen Tool will enable you to work much quicker.

SHIFT – After closing your path, if you want to start a new path/shape from any of your points or along your path just hold down Shift. If you're not trying to start a new path/shape from a point or along a curve, you don't need Shift; after the path is closed you can just start your next path/shape without doing anything.

(Subtracting and adding points to your path/shape don't require any keyboard shortcuts. Just hovering over a point with your Pen Tool selected will change the Pen tool to the Delete Anchor Point Tool, and likewise just hovering over a path with the Pen Tool selected will change your Pen Tool to the Add Anchor Point Tool.)


Not to be confused with changing your Pen Tool's paths to Shape mode, the Shape Tool (A) gives you some preset shapes to choose from. This will save you the time of having to manually create things like Rectangles, Rounded Rectangles, Ellipses, Polygons, Lines, and Custom Shapes, and you can also use these as your base shape and build your logo or elements out of them. The Custom Shape Tool (B) allows you to create shapes based on various preset images. There are different libraries to chose from (C) and if you want you can create your own custom shapes and custom libraries.

(This isn't really central to logo design, but just in case you want to know how to create those custom shapes)

Select your shape layer in the layer panel and change your tool to the Direct Selection Tool (white arrow). Control click (right click) on your image and choose 'Define Custom Shape' (A). Rename your custom shape whatever you want (B) and it'll be added to the open library.


Depending on how you decide to work and how well you can digitally paint in Photoshop, the Brush Tool (A) can be an important tool to understand. I highly recommend purchasing a pen tablet if you find a need to use the Brush Tool often (I use Wacom). It's possible to use this tool with a mouse or trackpad but it is significantly easier with a pen tablet. Familiarizing yourself with all of the Brush's panel options and settings (B) can take some time but there are a lot of tutorials out there that cover pretty much everything. In my opinion the only reasons to use the Brush Tool in logo design are for sketching and fine or hand drawn details, but then, I'm not that great of a digital painter. I'm not sure I'd ever find myself using the Brush Tool when finalizing a logo but you never know when you might need it to paint in small, complex, or hand drawn details. As far as I'm concerned the most important function of the Brush Tool in logo design is for sketching logo ideas. A lot of people work with pen/pencil and paper for their initial design ideas, but with a pen tablet, Photoshop's Brush Tool, and a little practice, you can achieve the same thing (in my opinion, faster). My advice would be to use Photoshop only for your sketches and then move on to Illustrator for your final design.


Having taught myself Photoshop, I spent years without ever using Clipping Masks. One day I just stumbled into a tutorial that relied heavily on them and my whole Photoshop world changed. Any layer can be used as a Clipping Mask by either Option/Alt clicking the line between the layer you're looking to make a Clipping Mask and the layer underneath it, or by selecting the layer you want to make a Clipping Mask and selecting 'Create Clipping Mask' from the layer panel's drop down (A) in the upper right corner of the panel or by right clicking the layer. In the above example I was looking to paint a soft blue edge on the lower logo element (B). (This is the way it would look before making the layer into a Clipping Mask, but you should make the layer a Clipping Mask before painting)

As you can see that same blue brush area, once it's layer has been made into a Clipping Mask, only appears in the alpha of the layer below it (B). Once made a Clipping Mask the layer will display an arrow pointing down and shift a little to the right in the layer panel (A). There are a lot of uses for Clipping Masks and once you've become comfortable with the concept you'll find it an invaluable tool for more or less everything in Photoshop. The same can be said of Layer Masks.

Any selection can be used to mask out portions of your design with Layer Masks. You can make selections with your Lasso Tools, Marquee Tools, from paths, and by using the alpha of any layer (Command (Apple)/Control (Windows) Click the layer's image icon). Once you have a selection you can click the icon at the bottom of the layer palette (A) to create a Layer Mask on the active layer. This will result in a mask icon next to your layer's image icon in the layer's palette (B). You can unlock and lock the mask (click on the little chain link next to it's icon) so that it moves independently of the layer (unlocked) or with it (locked). When your mask is selected you'll have various options to control it in the Properties panel (C). The important thing to remember about how masks are represented in that little mask icon (B) is that white represents fully transparent and black represents fully opaque. This is important to remember because with the mask icon selected on your layer you can use your brush to hide or reveal parts of your image by painting in either white, black, or anywhere in between.


If you're using Photoshop for your logo design it's important that you work large (i'd recommend at least 300dpi and large enough to cover all possible applications). But the key to designing a successful logo is to create something that works at all sizes. A good way to keep a reference for how your logo will work at smaller sizes, while working large, is by using the Navigator panel (A). The Navigator gives you the ability to see your entire comp in a small window, and if you choose, you can use the Navigator panel to zoom in and pan around your comp. Having a small reference of your logo while working is a good way to ensure that your creation is not becoming illegible at small sizes. Depending on the complexity of your logo you'll sometimes have to make a few different versions so that it remains visually consistent across all sizes. Some people duplicate their comps in order to get a view of it small, but the Navigator seems easier to me.


While I highly recommend using Illustrator if you're working on a logotype, Photoshop's Type Tool (A) can be used as well and everything in the Character panel (B) is similar to Illustrator's. If you need to manipulate a character's design you can convert your type to shapes by right clicking on your type layer in the layer panel and choosing 'Convert to Shape' (this is similar to converting your type to outlines in Illustrator). Once your type is converted to shape you can manipulate it's paths like any other shape with your Pen Tool.


Explaining everything there is to know about color in Photoshop would take a very long time so I'll just explain what everything is. The color Mode you work in (A) depends on what you plan on doing with your logo. In all likelihood you're going to need a bunch of different versions for a number of formats (web, print, broadcast, etc.). Keeping your colors consistent across formats is a question that maybe someone else could answer better than me, so I suggest making it a separate question.

The basic Mode selections are, RGB for web and broadcast, and CMYK for print (B). Depending on the format you're working in you may want to set your Color panel (C) settings up for that format. When working for the web you may want to set your Color panel settings (D) to 'Web Color Sliders', 'RGB Spectrum', and 'Make Ramp Web Safe' (that last one isn't necessary as your color selections will be converted into Web Colors anyway). If you're working for broadcast I'd recommend you change your settings (D) to 'RGB Sliders' and 'RGB Spectrum' (broadcast safe colors could be an entirely different topic so I won't go into that other than to say that you can load an action in the Actions panel (Video Actions – Broadcast Safe) that will convert your colors to broadcast safe colors). For print you'll probably want your setup to be 'CMYK Sliders' and 'CMYK Spectrum' (there is a whole lot to know about print colors but you should ask someone else since I work mainly in broadcast). There is another option though when choosing color in Photoshop and when designing logos it's an important one.


Regardless of how you choose your color in Photoshop, I suggest that your final color palette should  be made into swatches and saved. Swatches are essentially preset colors. You can either select your colors first and make them into swatches or you can create your color palette out of swatches (to make one of the colors you've chosen in your Color panel a swatch just make sure the color is in the front (D), click in an empty space in the Swatch panel (C) and then name it what you want). The top line on the Swatch panel (A) is essentially a swatch history bar; it keeps track of the last 16 swatches you've used and constantly changes to update your history. Beneath that are all of your swatches. By opening up the Swatch panel settings (B) you can choose from a whole bunch of different swatch collections including various Pantone and Web collections (the Swatch panel settings (B) are also how you save your swatches).

(I forgot to mention the basic color setup on the left-hand side of the screen. D and E are your front (D) and back (E) colors and they can be switched back and forth by pressing X, or by using the little arrows next above them. Your front color is the color you're currently working with. F is the black and white preset for your colors. Clicking that will return your front and back colors to black and white, respectively. You can do the same thing by hitting D)

There are of course a lot more things you can use in Photoshop when creating a logo, but these are more or less your basics. As I mentioned above and as anyone else will tell you, you really should be doing all of this in Illustrator. As far as learning how to design logos goes there are a ton of tutorials on the web that will teach you the fundamentals of logo design. Learning the design principles and operating the software are entirely different subjects, but now you have a brief explanation of some of the tools you can use to execute your design with.

Hope this helps.

What are the best ways to learn logo design in Photoshop?

Who is the world’s earliest talking baby, and in how many days did they start talking?

Answer by Gayle Laakmann McDowell:

I don't know if this is the earliest (probably not). However, Michael Kearney, who I interned with at Microsoft, spoke his first words at four months. At the age of six months, he told his pediatrician, "I have a left ear infection." He finished high school at age 6.


Who is the world's earliest talking baby, and in how many days did they start talking?

Are there any grammatically sound sentences in English, where every word starts with the same letter?

Answer by David Greenspan:

Absolutely.  Assembling an appropriate answer appears achievable, assuming an articulate author appropriately adept at alliteration.

Behold, by being brave, but besides boldness by brainstorming before beginning, broadcasting brief blurbs becomes bizarre but basic babbling.

Continuing, casual crowd commenters can concur, collectively checking current compositional constraints controlling character choice, concerning certain crackpot creative chores, chiefly claiming common cunning's compelled conclusion, comprising conjectured chore conquerability (circumstantially) carrying clear caveats cautioning care, considering calling colossal commitments complete cinches could convey controversial cool confidence.

Don't dare doubt David's diligence doing deeds demanding deft, devious design, dear discussion denizen, deeming dogged determination doesn't darken David's door; during diction's driest drudgery, despite delightful daydreams delaying development, destiny's death-defying daredevil detail deviser dodges despair, denying defeat, displaying devotion demonstrating dreary deliberation doubles daft drama's devastating dynamic disposition, dovetailing directly.

Edit: People have asked for more, so here is another.

English enthusiasts eagerly envision enhanced emotional elevation, exceeding even existing examples' elicited elation, encountering each ensuing eccentric exercise, ergo everyone's esteemed enlisted essayist (enchanted!) ensures each exquisite excerpt exhibits explosive expressive efficacy evincing either excruciating editing effort, extreme endurance, engineering excellence, etc., else elemental extemporaneous effervescence, entertaining enough except — explaining earnestly — entailing eventual emergency; essentially, endorsing ever-escalating elaborate experimentation encourages extravagant excesses, especially emphasizing expectations encompassing elusive execution extending established events — exclusively employing equal everyday emblems (E's, e.g.) embodying each emblem ensemble's earlier end (elsewhere enunciated easily) — evaluating endowing entirely equivalent eloquence eternally, envisaging electronic education's emerging endeavor enjoying eight, eleven, even eighteen entries, exploits experts empirically estimate expending extra-Einstein egghead energy engendering environmentally evil, Earth-exposing exhaled exhaust emissions.

Five funny features feel fairly finished for forum fodder, foolish followers falsely fancy, for failing further focus fueling full foresight, fellow fiction fanciers frankly forget fundamental facts framing fruits from frenzied freelancing, for first fragments flowing from frantic freshman fingers frequently fall flat, forming forced, flawed fakeries feigning fluency, faded facsimiles fractionally fitting for fatuous Facebook flapdoodle, familiar formulaic fragments famously fouling friends' feeds; fine, for furthermore, fascinatingly, first forays facing far-flung fringe frontiers, finding faith's fortitude ferociously fighting formidable foes — fear, frustration, flaky functioning, foot fungus — forge foundations for future feats, figurative furniture for fortune's foyer, faintly favoring fantastic fairytale fates, fervently foremost finally finishing forever.

Good grief, getting gobsmacked glimpsing great glory gushing goofy gibberish generates growing gaiety, gladdening geekery's gracious groupie (greetings), generally greasing God's genetically ghostwritten gearbox governing giddiness gainsaying glumness: graphically, guts, glands — generously, gantries guiding glowing glee grains granting genuine giggles, graceful gadgets guarding geniality's green garden gate; gobbledygook, gentle guy/girl gathering: grin given glimmering gold; gasp gratuitously guzzling glittery glamor (greedily, gilded gramophones gurgling garbled Gangnam getting groovy gyrating go-go gals gamely gesturing galloping); groan giant, gutteral groans given glaringly glib games, gross grammatical goulash, gloppy gumbo grouping gimmicks galore: gawkish gymnasts gliding gallantly, gingerly grasping gigantic grotesque gorillas; guileless genius guaranteeing gullible gala-goers grimy garbage garnering ghastly grapevine gossip (galling grieving geriatrics gripping geraniums gentrifying grandpa's grave); ghoulish gory galleries giving grimacing guests grisly gas, grunting gruffly: go gag gobbling grass, goddamn gibbon, get gone guilty gent, git!

Huge hits have historically harbored hidden hazards, hysterical hordes hardly heeding how habitually heaping honors hyping his Holiness, Harry Harangue-Hatcher, hollering, "Hip hip, hooray!  Hail Hypertext Highway's happening hack!" heavily heightens his hedonism, hubris, head hugeness — harsh harbingers hurling humanity's hardiest hero hellward, hereafter helming his hapless human husk haunting Hades's hallmark hot haze, heckling Halloween's hideous headless horseman (hefting his hollow head), harassing Hitler's hired Holocaust henchmen, hassling ham-handed helicopter handlers — hopefully, hypothetically, having hardcore horizontal hugs holding his horny, high-heeled hourglass honey (he handily helped hang her hemp Hawaiian hammock), heartland's "happy" housewife humbling hotel heiress Hilton, heinously having hated her husband's horsey hee-haw "hello," his hundred horrible hay howls hammering her homicidal; however, have heart, huddled hint hobbyists, hearkening how hallowed hieroglyphs hurtling hence harmonize hypnotically, heaven's harps highlighting how hyperactive hippocampus hockey heaves hilarious harvested hash — healthy herbs healing hungry humor hankerings.

Edit:  Thanks for the kind words, everyone!  Here is letter I.

It is intriguing, if I innocently introspect, inquiring into industriousness, imagining isolating its ingredients, i.e. internal impetuses instrumental in inspiring indefinite intransigence in inking inane, ignoble illustrations (illuminating immoderate idiom's indomitable impetuosity, its irrepressible impishness, in infinite iterations), intently ignoring indolent inclinations inducing interest in idly inspecting Internet idiocy instead — insouciantly ingesting incessant immature innuendos insulting impromptu interactive images, inevitably imbibing insipid informational items interpreting important issues incorrectly; if indeed impressive inner influences inhere in intrepidly indulging improbable initiatives, I informally identify: idiosyncratic innate impulses involving inflexible ideals; incurable insomnia; iron intestinal integrity; insufficiently inebriated introversion; indubitably, intellectual imperative imitating insecure icicles in impaling indifferent inactivity.

Jumping Jehoshaphat, J's jaunty jangle jovially jolts jaded jargon junkies, justifying judicious juggling joining jocose journal jottings; judging Job's Judaic journey jejune, jamming jousts (jointly, jabs) jeopardizing joyful June/July junctures — just jubilate, juvenilely jacking jumbo Jamba Juice jugs joking jumbled jingles jollify jail's jeering junior janitors.

Knucklehead knaves karate-kicking King Kong's kidneys kneel, kindred kibitzers, keenly knowing kempt knights knead keyboards, knitting kooky keynotes — kerosene kinetically kindling kinky kittens' kisses, kiddingly kidnapping Kim Kardashian's kingdom keys, knotting klutzy Kanye's knickers; knappish killjoys, kowtow: kryptonite k-key knacks keep knowledge-knockers knackered.

Look lively, listless language lovers, learning lame lulls lack lasting legitimacy lessening lofty literature's lumbering, lurching locomotion; leaving Local Lunatic Linguist listing letters, let's lazily luxuriate, losing life's latest little lingering laments like landlords limit lawless louts' leases, least-leniently letting long-lost loathesome lecturers lambaste liberated leaders, lucidly laughing:  Listen — lending lighthearted levity lubricates lavish labor, launching latent legato lyrics like larynx-lodged lasagna; likewise, licking lollipops; looping leashes loosely; lustily locking lips; lemon-lime lozenges; large-lidded lunch liquids; lastly, low light levels limning luscious landscapes.

Are there any grammatically sound sentences in English, where every word starts with the same letter?

What is the general consensus “most romantic thing ever” that a guy can do for a girl?

Sad and Awesome in equal parts…

Answer by Nick Michaels:

I'm a guy so I'll tell you the "most romantic thing ever" I think I've ever done for a girl.

There was this girl. Amber was her name. I was 17 then (I am 20 now) and I might've been too young to say this, but I love her and still do. Blonde, beautiful, smart, funny as hell, talented, everything a guy could ever want in a girl, and she chose me.

I found out that her favorite song was 'You and Me' by Lifehouse. Very few people knew this. Very few. I learned and sang that song, recorded a video of me playing and singing it (she was on a vacation, so I couldn't do it in person). I never looked into the camera, except when I sang the line, "I don't know why I can't keep my eyes off of you."

I gave that to her after she came home from vacation. I said, "Amber, I'd like to give this to you. To show how much I love you. Just pop it into your computer, watch, and listen." So she did. I waited on her couch to see her response. She came outside of her bedroom, eyes full of tears and bawling: "Nick, how did you know?" I said, "Your father told me that it was your favorite song. He told me that you'd always listen to it before you went to sleep because you'd be singing it out loud." (Her father had passed away from lung cancer exactly one year before I recorded it). She looked at me and said, "This is the sweetest thing any guy has ever done for me. Thank you so much." I said, "Ah, I try." She couldn't stop hugging me. I think we hugged for a solid 10 minutes before I had to leave. She called me after I got home. She said, "Nick, how can I ever repay you for this?" I said, "You already have. You are in my life. You are the most wonderful girl I've ever met. You make me laugh uncontrollably and you always find a way to put a smile on my face, Amber. I am proud to have you in my life."

She told me everyday since then that she listened to my version of the song before she fell asleep to it. We were madly in love with each other. I felt the world turn more slowly when I was with her. It was meant to be. I had found my soul mate. And Amber was her name.

About a month after I did that for her, she was involved in a horrific hit-and-run accident. Some piece of $hit decided to go out of his GD way to hit my Amber. My beautiful, innocent, Amber. My only thoughts were: why her, of all people. Why? She doesn't deserve this.

I arrived at the scene and saw her. She was motionless, nothing. Not a single movement. I fell to my knees and cried and cried and cried. I rode with her in the ambulance. I held her hand the entire trip to the hospital, hoping and praying that she would be all right.

She was in a coma for three months. Then she woke up. The doctors told me she had lost all memory, that she'd never recognize me ever in her life.

While in her coma, and after her waking up from it, I'd go and see her every day in the hospital. I'd play and sing her favorite song: 'You and Me' by Lifehouse. She somehow recollected that that was her favorite song, but she had no idea who I was. That tore me apart, knowing that she'd never remember me. Playing and singing for her was enough, though.

A couple of days before she died, I was playing and singing the line, "I don't know why I can't keep my eyes off of you." She said, "Nick, how did you know?" I cried and cried forever. She defied the odds. She knew who I was, even after the severe brain trauma and the doctors saying she'll never recognize me.

I played and sang her favorite song 'You and Me' by Lifehouse at her funeral. I had to stop seven times because I couldn't stop crying. But I did it. Everyday after I get home from work, I take care of my dog, and then grab my Taylor. I drive the 13.4 miles to her grave, sit down in the grass, and start playing and singing her favorite song, 'You and Me' by Lifehouse. It brings me to tears every time. Every time. Knowing that she's in a better place and free of pain is comforting. But knowing I'll never get to see the love of my life is the hardest thing for me.

– Nick, the guitar guy

What is the general consensus "most romantic thing ever" that a guy can do for a girl?

Why is graphic design work so simple?

Answer by Andrew Williams:

Because you don’t understand what design work is.

The field of graphic design includes slightly more than placement of text and images. The following is a list of topics dealing just with the technical concerns of graphic design:

Operating systems and applications

Mac vs. PC
Digital displays
Bitmaps vs. vectors
Adobe Creative Suite
Other applications


Anatomy of type
Typeface selection
Font formats
Manipulating type
Creating body text
Type and color
Custom typefaces
Using fonts for print vs. web


Achieving accurate color
Screen angle, dot shape, and dot gain
Trapping and choking
Manipulating color
Creating a smooth gradient
Color-matching systems
Spot colors and special finishes
Color proofing on-screen
Inkjet color proofs
Professional color proofing
Choosing color for screen use


Sourcing images
Commissioning an illustrator
Working with photographers
Scaling images
Brightness, contrast, hue, and saturation
Image retouching
Layers, paths, and channels
Blending modes
Creating cutouts
Pixels to vectors
Vectors to pixels
Black-and-white conversion
Preparing an image for print
Setting up a CMYK profile
Understanding color profiles
Converting an RGB image to CMYK
Image-proofing marks
Image file formats for print
Preparing images for the web
Image file formats for the web


Working with page objects
Placing images
Placing text
Setting up a grid
Setting up master pages
Proportion and consistency
Designing tables
Web layouts
Developing a website
Publishing a website


Setting up a studio printer
Preflight procedures
Exporting PDFs
Preparing for output
File transfer
Choosing paper
Paper sizes
Folds and bindings
Print finishing
Solving print problems
Dealing with printers

There are also philosophical, aesthetic, and political questions about design. These are subjects that don't simply have a tutorial or instruction manual. To be a good designer, you have to understand not only how techniques in design work, but also why. Here are some seminal writings in design theory:

Who We Are: Manifesto of the Constructivist Group. Aleksandr Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova, Aleksei Gan c. 1922

Our Book. El Lissitzky 1926

Typophoto. László Maholy-Nagy 1925

The New Typography. Jan Tschichold 1928

The Crystal Goblet or Why Printing Should Be Invisible. Beatrice Warde 1930

On Typography. Herbert Bayer 1967

Designing Programmes. Karl Gerstner 1964

Grid and Design Philosophy. Josef Müller-Brockmann 1981

Good Design Is Goodwill. Paul Rand 1987

Learning from Las Vegas: The Forgotten Symbolism of Architectural Form. Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour 1972

My Way to Typography. Wolfgang Weingart 2000

Typography as Discourse. Katherine McCoy with David Frej 1988

The Macramé of Resistance. Lorraine Wild 1998

The Dark in the Middle of the Stairs. Paula Scher 1989

The Underground Mainstream. Steven Heller 2008

Design and Reflexivity. Jan van Toorn 1994

Design Anarchy. Kalle Lasn 2006

The Designer as Author. Michael Rock 1996

Designing Our Own Graves. Dmitri Siegel 2006

Dematerialization of Screen Space. Jessica Helfand 2001

Designing Design. Kenya Hara 2007

Import/Export, or Design Workflow and Contemporary Aesthetics. Lev Manovich 2008

Univers Strikes Back. Ellen and Julia Lupton 2007

…If you've mastered the basic techniques of graphic design, read the history, and understand the philosophy, aesthetics, and politics, and you still think that design is just about placing text and images, then perhaps we just need to talk semantics. Maybe 'simple' just doesn't mean to you what it means to everyone else. 😉

Why is graphic design work so simple?